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美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显美式人权的虚伪(3)(中英对照)

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II.Social Impact of Racial Discrimination in the US

二、美国种族歧视的社会后果
Racial discrimination has a detrimental social impact in the US. It has led to worsening race relations, growing hate crimes, and increasing societal breakdown.
美国种族歧视问题造成了严重的社会后果,它导致种族关系持续恶化,仇恨犯罪不断增加,社会撕裂日益严重。
1. Worsening race relations
(一)种族关系持续恶化
The year 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the promulgation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. A survey by the Pew Research Center on current US race relations revealed that 45 percent of respondents thought that the US had made progress in racial equality. Statistics released by the Pew Research Center in August 2015 showed that 50 percent of Americans thought that racism was a serious social problem in the US, and 60 percent – 14 percentage points higher than the previous year – thought that the government should make more effort to promote racial equality. A National Broadcasting Company (NBC) poll in 2016 found 77 percent of the US public confirming the existence of racial discrimination against African-Americans, and 52 percent of them calling it a very serious problem. Pewresearch.org reported on February 22, 2018 that in 2017, about eight in ten African Americans (81 percent) said racism is a big problem in society today, an increase of 37 percentage points compared with 2009. NBC News reported on May 29, 2018 that a poll shows that 64 percent of its respondents said racism remains a major problem in American society; 45 percent believed race relations in the US are getting worse; and 30 percent thought race is the biggest source of division in America today.
2014年是美国《民权法案》颁布50周年,皮尤中心对美国种族关系现状的调查显示,仅有45%的受访者认为美国在种族平等方面取得了进步。皮尤中心2015年8月发布的数据显示,50%的美国人认为种族主义是美国社会的严重问题;60%的美国人认为国家需要继续努力促进种族平等,比一年前高出14个百分点。美国全国广播公司2016年的民意调查显示,77%的美国民众认为存在针对非洲裔的种族歧视问题,其中52%的人认为这种歧视非常严重。皮尤研究中心网站2018年2月22日报道,2017年的一项调查显示,81%的非洲裔认为种族歧视仍是当今社会的严重问题,比8年前增长37个百分点。美国全国广播公司新闻网2018年5月29日报道,一项问卷调查显示,64%的受访者认为种族主义是美国的一个重大社会问题,45%的受访者认为美国的种族关系在恶化,30%的受访者认为种族问题是当今美国社会分裂的最大根源。
2. Growing racial hate crimes
(二)种族仇恨犯罪增多
The number of racial hate groups keeps growing. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, there were 457 hate groups in the US in 1999, 602 in 2000, and 1,000 by 2010. Among these were the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, Skinhead, and anti-Muslim groups. Their members were present at the white-supremacist demonstrations in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017.
种族仇恨团体数量快速增长。美国南方贫困问题法律中心数据显示,美国国内的仇恨团体数量在1999年为457个,到2000年增长到602个,在2010年前后突破1000个,其中不乏“三K党、新纳粹、光头党、反穆斯林团体”等种族仇恨团体。在2017年弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔的白人至上主义者游行中,就出现了这些种族仇恨团体的身影。
The number of racial hate crimes remains high. According to the FBI yearly statistics for hate crimes, an annual average of 6,000 hate crimes were reported from 2010 to 2015. About 60 percent of such crimes involved racial discrimination and 20 percent involved religious discrimination. Latimes.com reported on November 13, 2018 that according to a report released by the FBI, hate crimes in the US rose by more than 17 percent in 2017 – the biggest annual increase since 2001. Among the 7,175 documented hate crimes in 2017, about 60 percent were motivated by racial discrimination and close to 50 percent victims were African Americans.
种族仇恨犯罪数量居高不下。根据美国联邦调查局仇恨犯罪年度统计报告,2010年至2015年美国仇恨犯罪数量年均在6000起左右。这些仇恨犯罪中,60%左右的案件涉及种族歧视因素,20%左右涉及宗教歧视因素。《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年11月13日报道,联邦调查局发布的报告显示,2017年美国的仇恨犯罪创2001年以来的最大年度涨幅,上升超过17%。在7175起仇恨犯罪案件中,约60%的犯罪涉种族歧视,近50%的受害者是非洲裔。
Vicious hate crimes are frequent. In April 2014, Frazier Glenn Cross, a 73-year-old white supremacist, shot dead three people at two Jewish sites in Kansas City. He shouted "Heil Hitler" when arrested. In 2015, 21-year-old white man Dylann Roof shot dead nine people including the pastor inside an African-American church in Charleston, South Carolina. He shouted "You have to go" as he fired at his victims. On October 27, 2018, Robert Bowers, a 46-year-old white male, entered the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with an assault rifle and three handguns, and opened fire for 20 minutes during a Shabbat religious service while shouting anti-Semitic phrases, leaving 11 dead and 6 injured. This was the worst incident of anti-Semitic violence in recent US history.
恶性种族仇恨犯罪案件时有发生。2014年4月,73岁的白人至上主义分子弗雷泽·格伦·克洛斯在堪萨斯城犹太人机构附近枪杀3人。他在被拘捕后大喊“希特勒万岁”显示其反犹太人立场。2015年,21岁的白人男子戴伦·鲁夫在南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿一个非洲裔美国人的教堂内枪杀了包括牧师在内的9人,并在行凶时大喊:“你们必须滚出去!”2018年10月27日,46岁的白人男子罗伯特·鲍尔斯携带步枪、手枪等武器,闯入位于宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡市的犹太人教堂,高喊反犹太主义极端口号,向正在教堂内礼拜的教徒进行了20分钟的扫射,致11人死亡、6人受伤。这是美国历史上犹太人社区遭受的最为致命的攻击。
3. Increasing societal breakdown
(三)社会撕裂日益严重
There are widely disparate views on racial discrimination in US society. A PRRI study in 2016 showed that 64 percent of African-Americans complained about police abuse of power in their communities, while only 17 percent of the white respondents shared this view – the former figure is nearly four times the latter. About 83 percent of white people had confidence in law enforcement by police, while only 48 percent of African-Americans held such views. White people and African-Americans held completely different views toward police killing of African-Americans. About 65 percent of white people and 15 percent of African-Americans thought such incidents were unrelated individual cases, but as many as 81 percent of African-Americans believed that such incidents were frequent in the US.
美国社会对种族歧视问题的认识存在严重分歧。美国公共宗教研究所2016年的调查表明,64%的非洲裔认为社区内存在警察施虐问题,仅有17%的白人认同这种观点,前者是后者的近4倍。有83%的白人对警察执法较有信心,但仅有48%的非洲裔同意这种观点。白人和非洲裔对警察杀害非洲裔美国人的看法截然不同,大约有65%的白人和15%的非洲裔认为警察杀害非洲裔美国人为孤立事件,但有81%的非洲裔认为该类事件广泛存在。
Incidents of police killing African-Americans have triggered racial hostility and hate. When the human rights organization "Black Lives Matter" took to the streets in Minneapolis in November 2015 to protest about the police killing of Jamar Clark, an African-American man, several white supremacists opened fire at them and five were injured. In July 2016, incidents of white police killing African-Americans in both Louisiana and Minnesota, which aroused public outcries in more than one place. During the protests in Dallas, Texas, a man shot at police officers, killing five and injuring nine. The shooter later explained that he had killed the white police officers only to protest police brutality against African-Americans.
警察枪杀非洲裔事件引发不同种族之间的对立与仇恨。2015年11月,在明尼阿波利斯市,人权团体“黑人生命也珍贵”因非洲裔男子贾马尔·克拉克被警方枪杀而组织的抗议游行活动遭到数名白人至上主义者枪击,造成5人受伤。2016年7月,路易斯安那州、明尼苏达州先后发生白人警察枪杀非洲裔案件,美国多地爆发抗议游行。在得克萨斯州达拉斯市中心的游行示威活动中,一名枪手开枪袭击在现场维持秩序的警察,共造成5名警察死亡,9名警察受伤。枪手在与谈判人员沟通时表示,他杀死白人警察只是为了抗议警方枪杀非洲裔的暴行。
White supremacist demonstrations trigger violent conflict. In August 2017, white supremacists and rightists were heard yelling the Nazi slogan "Blood and soil!" at a rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. James Alex Fields Jr, a 20-year-old white supremacist, accelerated his car and slammed into the counter-protesters, killing one and injuring 19. According to a report on The Daily Telegraph website from August 13, 2017, the rally and subsequent violence resulted in three dead and dozens injured. One US human rights group said that this white supremacist rally may have been America's "largest hate gathering in decades". Anastasia Crickley, chairperson of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, commented: "We are alarmed by the racist demonstrations, with overtly racist slogans, chants and salutes by white nationalists, neo-Nazis, and the Ku Klux Klan, promoting white supremacy and inciting racial discrimination and hatred."
白人至上主义游行引发暴力冲突。2017年8月,一些白人种族主义者和右翼抗议者聚集在弗吉尼亚州的夏洛茨维尔市游行示威,高喊着“鲜血与土地”的纳粹战斗口号。20岁的白人至上主义者詹姆斯·菲尔茨驾驶汽车高速撞向抗议白人至上主义游行的人群,致使1人死亡、19人受伤。英国《每日电讯报》网站2017年8月13日报道,白人至上主义游行及后续暴力事件共造成3人死亡,数十人受伤。美国民权团体将这次白人至上主义游行描述为“几十年来最大的仇恨聚会”。针对这一事件,联合国消除种族歧视委员会主席阿纳斯塔西娅·克里科里指出:“我们对白人民族主义者、新纳粹和三K党以公开的种族主义口号和仪式进行的种族主义游行感到极度震惊,这种行为助长了白人至上主义并煽动种族歧视和仇恨。”

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rifle ['raifl]

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n. 步枪
v. 洗劫,抢劫

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figure ['figə]

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n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
v

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assault [ə'sɔ:lt]

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n. 攻击,突袭
vt. 袭击,突袭

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brutality [bru:'tæləti]

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n. 残忍,无慈悲,野蛮的行为

 
supremacy [sju'preməsi]

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n. 至高,主权,最高权力或地位

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disparate ['dispərit]

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adj. 不同的,全异的,乖离的

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discrimination [di.skrimi'neiʃən]

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n. 歧视,辨别力,识别

 
hatred ['heitrid]

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n. 憎恶,憎恨,怨恨

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promulgation [,prɔməl'ɡeiʃən, ,prəumʌl-]

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n. 颁布;公布;宣传;普及

 
violent ['vaiələnt]

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adj. 暴力的,猛烈的,极端的

 


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