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美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显美式人权的虚伪(2)(中英对照)

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2. Racial discrimination in the economic sector

(二)经济领域中的种族歧视
Racial discrimination places racial minorities in a disadvantaged position in employment, career development, earnings, and general economic conditions. Racial discrimination in the economic sector tends to be implicit, but has a decisive impact on the life of racial minorities.
由于种族歧视的客观存在,少数种族在就业、职业发展、工资收入、经济状况等方面处于全方位的劣势地位。经济领域中的种族歧视相对隐性,但其对于少数种族命运的影响却是决定性的。
Racial minorities are disadvantaged in the job market. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from past years, people of African and Latin American ancestry have a much higher unemployment rate than those of Caucasian ancestry, and the racial differences as manifested in the employment rate have not changed with the changing economic situation. African Americans have an unemployment rate twice as high as white people, and Latinos about 40 percent higher than white people.
少数种族在就业市场中处于不利地位。从美国劳工统计局历年的统计数据来看,非洲裔和拉美裔的失业率远高于白人,且就业率上的种族差异并没有因经济形势的变化而发生改变。非洲裔的失业率通常为白人的两倍左右;拉美裔失业率通常比白人高出40%左右。
Racial minorities face wage discrimination. According to the BLS data from 2010 to 2018, in terms of the median weekly earnings for full-time employees, African Americans had average wages about 30 percent lower than those of white people, and those of Latinos about 40 percent lower. An October 9, 2014 report on the USA Today website stated that in the same high-skilled positions such as computer programmers and software developers, Asians make US$8,146 less than whites per year.
少数种族面临薪酬歧视。美国劳工统计局2010年至2018年的数据显示,非洲裔全职工作的周薪中位值平均比白人低近30%,拉美裔全职工作的周薪中位值平均比白人低近40%。《今日美国报》网站2014年10月9日报道,美国经济研究所的研究显示,同等工作职位中亚裔的收入明显低于白人,例如在计算机编程和软件开发等高科技职位中,亚裔的年收入与白人之间的差距平均高达8146美元。
Racial minorities live in poverty and lack access to social welfare. According to a 2015 report by Cable News Network (CNN), the income gap between various ethnicities had widened further – the wealth possessed by white people was 12 times higher than that of African Americans and nearly 11 times higher than that of Latinos. According to research published by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) on February 13, 2017, more than one in four black households have zero or negative net worth. Latinos made up 28.1 percent of the 45 million living in poverty among the total US population. 37 percent of 14.5 million children living in poverty were of Latin American ancestry. Some 26 percent of African Americans were living in poverty and 12 percent in extreme poverty. The proportion of those of African ancestry among all homeless people in the US was about four times the percentage of African Americans to the total population of the US. About 60 percent of shelter residents were racial minorities. In emergency shelter sites, the number of children of African ancestry under age five was 28 times higher than their counterparts of Caucasian ancestry.
少数种族贫困状况严重,社会保障堪忧。美国有线电视新闻网2015年报道,种族之间的收入不平等进一步扩大,白人拥有的财富是非洲裔的12倍,是拉美裔的近11倍。美国经济政策研究所2017年2月13日发布的报告显示,大部分非洲裔和拉美裔劳动人口家庭的养老金账户中没有任何资产。超过四分之一的非洲裔家庭的净资产为零或负数。美国4500万贫困人口中28.1%为拉美裔。在美国1450万贫困儿童中,有37%为拉美裔。26%的非洲裔人口处于贫困之中,12%的非洲裔生活在极度贫困之中。与在美国整体人口中所占比例相比,非洲裔无家可归者的比例高出3倍。近60%的收容所居住者是少数种族。紧急避难所中5岁以下的非洲裔儿童是白人同类群体的29倍。
3. Racial discrimination in the social area
(三)社会生活中的种族歧视
Racial minorities experience discrimination and bullying in educational institutions. According to civil rights data from the Department of Education for 2013 and 2014, of 2.8 million students who were suspended from school, 1.1 million were African Americans, and the likelihood of suspension for students of African ancestry was 2.8 times higher than that of white students. A study reveals that students of Asian ancestry are bullied at school more than those of other ethnicities. Some 54 percent teenagers of Asian ancestry reported that they had been bullied at school, while the proportions were 38.4 percent for those of African ancestry and 34.3 percent for those of Latin American ancestry. The likelihood of students of Asian ancestry being bullied on the internet is three times that of other ethnicities.
少数种族在教育机构中遭受普遍的歧视与欺凌。美国教育部2013年至2014年民权数据显示,遭受离校停课处分的280万学生中,有110万是非洲裔学生,非洲裔学生遭受离校停课处分的可能性是白人学生的3.8倍。研究显示,亚裔学生在校遭欺凌多于其他族裔,54%的亚裔青少年表示曾在校园遭遇欺凌,非洲裔、拉美裔的这一比例分别为38.4%和34.3%,亚裔学生在网络上受到嘲讽或辱骂的比例是其他族裔的3倍。
Racial discrimination occurs frequently in commercial and industrial establishments. According to an October 23, 2013 report by The Huffington Post, Trayon Christian, a college student of African ancestry, bought a US$350 belt at Barneys in New York City, yet was suspected of fraud, handcuffed and arrested by police for interrogation even though he had shown the purchase receipt and his ID. His attorney Michael Palillo said, "His only crime is being a young black man." According to a May 27, 2018 report by the Los Angeles Times, data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) showed that black applicants were rejected at more than double the rate of non-Hispanic white applicants on all types of loans; black and Hispanic applicants were subject to annual percentage rates (APRs) that were at least 1.5 percentage points above the "average prime offer rate" for loans of a similar type.
工商业机构歧视少数种族事件频发。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2013年10月23日报道,非洲裔大学生特雷因·克里斯汀在巴尼百货公司购买了一条价值350美元的皮带,店员怀疑交易涉嫌欺诈并报警,他在出示了购买凭证和身份证件的情况下,依然被警察戴上手铐带到当地警局讯问。其辩护律师说:“他唯一的罪行就是身为一个年轻的非洲裔。”《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年5月27日报道,联邦消费者金融保护局的数据显示,在所有贷款类型中,非洲裔申请人被拒绝的比例是非拉美裔白人的2倍以上。非洲裔和拉美裔还被收取更高的贷款利率,他们通常要承担比平均利率高出1.5个百分点的年利率。
Racial discrimination and racial segregation in the workplace has been explicit. A study revealed that obvious racial segregation was found in 19 of 58 industries investigated. According to a December 11, 2018 report by WFAA.com, an African American employee from Zodiac Seats US sued his employer for racial discrimination and hostile work environment, saying that his white coworkers called him "a black monkey", and two female whites even left a noose in his workplace as retaliation after he had reported their use of racial slurs.
工作场所中的种族歧视和种族隔离现象明显。一项研究显示,58个被调查行业中有19个呈现出明显的种族隔离倾向。WFAA网站2018年12月11日报道,美国卓达飞机座椅制造公司的一名非洲裔员工,对公司存在种族歧视的工作环境提起诉讼。白人员工对他使用种族歧视性语言,称他为“黑猴子”。他在向公司举报后遭到报复,两位白人女同事竟将绞索放在他的工作台上。
African Americans have experienced various forms of implicit and explicit racial discrimination. According to an October 31, 2016 report by USA Today, research targeting Seattle and Boston on Uber taxi booking revealed that African Americans waited 30 percent longer than white people for Uber rides, and their appointments were canceled by drivers twice as frequently as those of the latter. According to a November 16, 2016 report by the Financial Times, an experiment conducted by Harvard Business School proved that implicit discrimination against African Americans is universal. When requesting accommodation, applicants with distinctively African-American names were 16 percent less likely to have their bookings accepted. This study also revealed that when the name used on a resume was distinctively African-American, job applicants were significantly less likely to get an interview than when identical applications with names that could be perceived as white.
非洲裔在日常生活中面临各种隐性和显性歧视。《今日美国报》2016年报道,在西雅图和波士顿等城市的调查显示,在使用优步软件叫车时,非洲裔乘客等待时间要比白人乘客大约长30%,且预约被取消率比白人乘客高出一倍。英国《金融时报》2016年11月16日报道,哈佛大学商学院的一项实验研究证明,生活中处处体现出对非洲裔美国人的隐形歧视。研究者在使用虚拟个人资料订房时发现,预订者的姓名明显像是非洲裔美国人的,其预订被接受的可能性要低16%。使用虚拟简历来应聘工作的,非洲裔姓名的简历得到面试的几率要显著低于内容一样但使用被认为可能是白人姓名的简历。
4. Racial discrimination against Native Americans and other indigenous peoples
(四)对印第安人等原住民的种族歧视
Indigenous people experienced serious economic and health problems. According to a February 15, 2011 report in the Daily Mail, statistics showed that more than 60 percent of the residents of Ziebach County in South Dakota, a community mainly composed of Native Americans, lived on or below the poverty line, and unemployment rates hit 90 percent in the winter. In 2013, James Anaya, the then UN special rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, pointed out that indigenous peoples in the US had a poverty rate twice as high as the national average, and that their average life expectancy was 5.2 years shorter than the national mean.
原住民经济状况堪忧,健康问题突出。英国《每日邮报》2011年2月15日报道,2011年的统计数据显示,主要由印第安人聚居的南达科他州齐巴克县有超过六成居民生活在贫困线以下,冬季失业率高达90%。2013年,时任联合国人权理事会原住民权利问题特别报告员詹姆斯·安娜亚的报告指出,美国原住民的贫困率是全国贫困率的两倍,原住民的寿命比全国平均水平低5.2岁。
Conspicuous problems exist in protecting the rights of indigenous women. On February 13, 2013, James Anaya pointed out that violence against indigenous women by non-indigenous residents was commonplace. According to an estimate by the US Department of Justice, the ratio of indigenous women who had been victims of violence was more than double the national average. As many as one third of indigenous women had suffered violence, and 80 percent of rape suspects were not indigenous people. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in reviewing the United States' 7th-9th combined report on implementing the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, demanded that the country prevent and fight violence against indigenous women, and ensure that all indigenous women victims of violence have access to justice and compensation.
原住民妇女权利保障问题突出。2013年2月13日,时任联合国人权理事会原住民权利问题特别报告员詹姆斯·安娜亚指出,美国原住民妇女遭到非原住民暴力侵害的案件多发。美国司法部估计,原住民妇女遭受暴力侵害的比例是全国平均值的两倍多,原住民妇女遭受强暴的比例高达三分之一,80%的强奸案嫌犯不是原住民。联合国消除种族歧视委员会对美国第七次至第九次合并履约报告的审议要求美国防止和打击对原住民妇女的暴力行为,从法律上和实际上保障所有原住民妇女暴力受害者享有诉诸司法和得到赔偿的权利。
5. Racial discrimination against Muslims
(五)对穆斯林群体的种族歧视
The US government carried out large-scale surveillance on Muslims. On December 1, 2011, the American Civil Liberties Union asserted that the FBI, in violation of federal laws, used its pervasive unauthorized internet access to secretly collect intelligence on Muslims and some other organizations. A report by the Pew Research Center showed that 52 percent of US Muslims thought they were under government surveillance, 28 percent of Muslims claimed they had the experience of being mistaken for suspects, and 21 percent of Muslims said that they had to go through separate security checks at airports. A poll suggested that more than half of American Muslims believed that the government's counter-terrorism policies involved additional surveillance and checks targeted solely against them.
美国政府对穆斯林群体大肆进行监控活动。2011年12月1日,美国公民自由联合会称,美国联邦调查局违反联邦法律,利用其广泛的网络越权秘密地收集穆斯林和一些其他组织的情报。皮尤研究中心的报告显示,52%的美国穆斯林认为受到政府监视,28%的穆斯林认为曾有过被视为嫌疑犯的经历,21%的穆斯林声称他们在机场过安检时被单独检查。一项民意调查表明,超过半数的美国穆斯林认为政府的反恐政策单独针对他们增加监控和检查。
Muslims suffered increasingly severe discrimination. On January 27, 2017, the US government issued an administrative order, banning citizens of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen from entering its territory. In view of the fact that Muslims form the majority of the population in all those countries, the order was widely interpreted as a "Muslim ban", and it sparked widespread protests in the US and many other places across the world. In a survey by the Pew Research Center in early 2017, 75 percent of adult Muslims in America believed that discrimination against Muslims was pervasive in the country, while 69 percent of the general public held the same view. Half of Muslims felt that it had become more and more difficult to be a Muslim in the US in recent years.
穆斯林群体遭遇日趋严重的歧视。2017年1月27日,美国政府发布一项行政命令,禁止伊朗、伊拉克、利比亚、索马里、苏丹、叙利亚和也门等7个国家的公民进入美国。由于禁令所涉国家均以穆斯林人口为主,因此该行政令也被普遍解读为“穆斯林禁令”。这一禁令在美国国内和世界各地都引发了广泛抗议。皮尤研究中心2017年初的一项调查显示,75%的美国成年穆斯林表示美国社会存在大量对穆斯林的歧视,69%的普通公众也持相同观点。50%的穆斯林表示,近年来在美国做一名穆斯林变得更加困难。
Religious discrimination is on the rise as events involving insults and attacks against Muslims increased in number. Muslims make up less than one percent of the US population, but 14 percent of the religious discrimination cases investigated by the federal government have involved Muslims, as have one quarter of the religious discrimination cases in workplaces. In September 2012, an American director shot a film insulting the Islamic prophet and released it online, evoking waves of protest by Muslims across the globe. According to a Pew Research Center analysis of the FBI statistics on hate crime, attacks against Muslims in America grew significantly in number from 2015 to 2016, exceeding the peak level following the 9/11 attacks in 2001. According to an October 22, 2018 article on the website of The Guardian, the US midterm elections that year had seen a dramatic rise in anti-Muslim rhetoric. A report showed that conspiracy theories targeting Muslims had increasingly entered the political mainstream. More than a third of the candidates claimed that Muslims are inherently violent or pose an imminent threat, and just under a third of the candidates called for Muslims to be denied basic rights or declared that Islam is not a religion, the report found.
宗教歧视明显上升,侮辱和攻击穆斯林的事件增多。穆斯林人口不到美国总人口的1%,但是联邦政府调查的宗教歧视案件中,14%涉及穆斯林;在职场宗教歧视案件中,25%涉及穆斯林。2012年9月,美国一名导演拍摄并在互联网上播放侮辱伊斯兰教先知的电影,引发全球穆斯林的抗议浪潮。皮尤研究中心对美国联邦调查局仇恨犯罪统计数据的分析显示,2015年至2016年,美国针对穆斯林的攻击事件数量显著增长,超过了2001年“9·11”事件后的峰值。英国《卫报》网站2018年10月22日报道,在2018年美国中期选举中,反穆斯林言论大幅上升。调查显示,针对穆斯林的阴谋论日益进入政治主流,“超过三分之一的候选人声称穆斯林天生暴力或构成迫在眉睫的威胁”,“将近三分之一的候选人呼吁剥夺穆斯林的基本权利或宣称伊斯兰教不是宗教”。
6. Racial discrimination against immigrants
(六)对移民群体的种族歧视
The US government used slanders and violence against immigrants. The Washington Post reported on November 26, 2018 that the US authorities fired tear gas on multiple occasions at the US border with Mexico to stop immigrants from Central America, causing many injuries. On November 28, 2018, UN experts including Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children and Chair of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, jointly issued letters to voice their concerns about the racist and xenophobic languages and practices used by US authorities, which fly in the face of international human rights standards. The letters said that the official response in that country stigmatises migrants and refugees, equating them with crime and epidemics, which also fuels a climate of intolerance, racial hatred and xenophobia against those perceived as non-white, creating hostile emotional environments.
美国政府污蔑和暴力对待移民。《华盛顿邮报》2018年11月26日报道,美国当局多次在美国与墨西哥边境使用催泪瓦斯,阻止来自中美洲的移民,导致多人受伤。2018年11月28日,联合国人权理事会任意拘留问题工作组主席兼报告员、人权与国际团结问题独立专家、健康权问题特别报告员、住房权问题特别报告员、“人权卫士”问题特别报告员、移民人权问题特别报告员、当代形式种族歧视问题特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、贩运人口问题特别报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席发表联合声明,批评美国政府高层违反国际人权标准、发表种族主义和排外主义言论并采取相关行动,对移民和难民进行污名化,将其视为罪犯和“传染病”,从而助长不容忍、种族仇恨和排外情绪,营造对非白人充满敌意的社会环境等。
Immigration policies separating children from parents. The New York Times website reported on May 12, 2018 that the US government introduced a new "zero tolerance" policy, calling for criminal prosecution of everyone who enters the country illegally, in April. Minor children must be taken from the parents who are in custody in the process. As a result, more than 2,000 migrant children have been separated from their parents. This policy had drawn waves of strong criticism and protests from the US society and the international community.
移民政策致使儿童与父母骨肉分离。《纽约时报》网站2018年5月12日报道,美国政府2018年4月开始实施“零容忍”政策,边境执法人员在逮捕非法入境者时,强制将其未成年子女另行安置,导致至少2000名儿童被迫与家人分离。该政策在美国国内及国际社会遭致潮水般的严厉批评与抗议。
Women and children seeking asylum suffered from abuses and sexual assaults. The website of The Independent on May 23, 2018 said there has been a startling increase in the number of instances where US Border Patrol officers have abused children seeking shelter in the United States. It quoted a previous disclosure from the American Civil Liberties Union that detailed 116 incidents where officers were alleged to have physically, sexually, or psychologically abused children between the ages of five and 17. According to a report on the American Immigration Council website on August 30, the Atlanta City Detention Center, used by the US authorities to hold individuals in immigration proceedings, were found to have problems such as unsanitary environment and rampant use of lockdown and isolation. The New York Times website reported on November 12, 2018 that Esteban Manzanares, a Border Patrol agent in Texas, drove three women, including two teenagers, who crossed border to seek shelter, to an isolated, wooded area 16miles outside the border city. There he sexually assaulted one girl and viciously attacked two others and left them, finally, to bleed in the brush. The report said that over the past four years, at least 10 people in South Texas have been victims of murder, kidnapping or rape by Border Patrol agents. According to a report by the CNN on December 26, 2018, Jakelin Caal Maquin, a 7-year-old girl from Guatemala, died December 8 in the custody of US Customs and Border Protection, fewer than 48 hours after CBP detained her. Another 8-year-old Guatemalan boy, Felipe Alonzo-Gomez, died late Christmas Eve in the agency's custody.
寻求庇护的妇女、儿童惨遭虐待和性侵。英国《独立报》网站2018年5月23日报道,美国边境执法人员虐待寻求庇护儿童的案件数量惊人增长。有116起虐待寻求庇护儿童的事件被披露,涉事人员被指控对5至17岁的儿童进行身体、性或心理上的虐待。美国移民委员会网站2018年8月30日报道,亚特兰大移民拘留中心卫生条件糟糕,被拘留的移民经常受到“关禁闭”和“单独囚禁”等惩罚。《纽约时报》网站2018年11月12日报道,得克萨斯州边境巡逻队的执法人员埃斯特班·曼扎纳雷遇到3名寻求庇护的女性移民,其中有2名未成年人。他将3人驱赶到距边境16英里的一个树林,在那里性侵了一名女孩,毒打了另外两人,之后把流血不止的她们扔在了灌木丛中。检方提供的信息显示,得克萨斯州南部过去4年至少有10人被边境执法人员绑架、强奸或谋杀。美国有线电视新闻网2018年12月26日报道,7岁的危地马拉女孩杰奎琳·卡奥12月8日在被美国海关及边境保卫局拘留后不到48小时死亡。12月24日平安夜,又一名8岁的危地马拉男孩费利佩·阿隆佐-戈麦斯在该机构监管下死亡。
Strong condemnation of the US immigration policies from UN institutions. A report of the UN Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, submitted in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 35/3, criticized the populism and the racist and xenophobic languages to describe immigrants used by the US administration as well as practices to separate children from their parents. It said these practices had imperiled the immigrants' human rights, including their rights to life, dignity and liberty (UN document A/73/206). According to the report of the ninety-third session of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the report of the UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance prepared pursuant to a UN General Assembly resolution, the phenomena of promoting white supremacy and inciting racial discrimination and hatred have long existed in American society. The United States failed to unequivocallyreject and contain racist violent events and demonstrations. High-level politicians and public officials, including the President, propagated nationalist and populist remarks, and published racist and xenophobic statements on print and social media (UN documents A/73/18, A/73/312, A/73/305).
联合国机构严厉谴责美国移民政策。2018年6月2日,联合国人权与国际团结问题独立专家依照联合国人权理事会第35/3号决议提交报告指出,美国政府奉行民粹主义,使用带有种族主义和仇外色彩的措辞污蔑和诋毁移民,并将儿童与其寻求庇护的父母强行分开,上述行径严重危及移民的生命权、尊严和自由权等多项人权。联合国消除种族歧视委员会第九十三届会议报告,以及联合国当代形式种族歧视问题特别报告员根据联合国大会决议撰写的报告指出,美国社会长期存在白人至上、煽动种族歧视和仇恨言论等现象。美国政府未能明确拒绝和遏制有关种族主义暴力事件和示威,包括总统在内的政府高官宣扬仇外的民族民粹主义言论,利用纸质媒体和社交媒体发表种族主义和仇外言论。

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uu快3走势 ['dʒɔ:intli]

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adv. 共同地,连带地

 
prevent [pri'vent]

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v. 预防,防止

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survey [sə:'vei]

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v. 调查,检查,测量,勘定,纵览,环视
n.

 
supremacy [sju'preməsi]

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n. 至高,主权,最高权力或地位

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commonplace ['kɔmənpleis]

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adj. 平凡的,陈腐的
n. 常事,老生常谈

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security [si'kju:riti]

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n. 安全,防护措施,保证,抵押,债券,证券

 
asylum [ə'sailəm]

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n. 收容所,避难所,庇护,精神病院

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isolated ['aisəleitid]

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adj. 分离的,孤立的

 
tear [tiə]

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n. 眼泪,(撕破的)洞或裂缝,撕扯
vt.

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contain [kən'tein]

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vt. 包含,容纳,克制,抑制
vi. 自制

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