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美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显美式人权的虚伪(1)(中英对照)

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The Deep-Rooted Racial Discrimination in the US Highlights Its Hypocrisy on Human Rights

美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显“美式人权”的虚伪
China Society for Human Rights Studies
中国人权研究会
Jul-19
2019年7月
The United States is a multi-racial country. Its present racial structure and race relations have their historical roots in European colonial expansion and African slave trade, and the influx of immigrants in modern times.
美国是一个多种族国家,历史上欧洲殖民扩张和非洲奴隶贸易,以及近代以来大量移民人口的不断进入,形成了当今美国的种族结构和种族关系。
The 2010 census showed that the US had a total population of 308 million. Based on their color, blood lineage, and places of origin, the US administration divides the population into: whites, 72.4 percent of the total population, including 63.7 percent non-Hispanic whites; African Americans, 12.6 percent; Asians, 4.8 percent; native Americans, 1.1 percent; other races, 6.2 percent; and mixed races, 2.9 percent. The non-Hispanic whites are deemed to be the majority racial group in the US, while the other 112 million people including the white Hispanic and Latino Americans are called minorities.
根据2010年人口普查数据,美国总人口约为3.08亿。美国官方根据肤色、血统、来源地等对种族进行分类:白人占总人口比例的72.4%,其中非拉美裔白人占总人口比例为63.7%;非洲裔占总人口的比例为12.6%;亚裔占总人口的比例为4.8%;原住民占总人口的比例约为1.1%;其他种族占总人口比例为6.2%;混合种族约占总人口比例的2.9%。非拉美裔白人被视作美国的主体种族,而包含拉美裔白人在内的1.12亿其他族裔都被称为少数种族。
Races are an important marker of US social division of category. Thomas Sowell, a US scholar, writes in his Ethnic America: A History, "Color has obviously played a major role in determining the fate of many Americans..." It is such differences that give rise to a hierarchy formed among different races that defines the status and power of each group. The fundamental control of state power by the European whites, the dominant race, and their systematic discrimination against all other races are the conspicuous feature of the American racial hierarchy. Racial discrimination in the US is in essence the discrimination of the European whites against all other racial minorities. Racial discrimination is the root cause and the supporting mechanism of the American racial hierarchy.
种族是美国重要的社会类别区分。美国学者托马斯·索维尔在其《美国种族简史》一书中指出,“肤色在决定美国人的命运方面,显然具有举足轻重的作用。”基于这种区分,美国不同种族之间逐步形成了一套在群体地位和群体权力上的层级系统。作为主体种族的欧洲裔白人对国家权力的根本性控制,以及对其他所有种族群体系统性的歧视,是美国种族层级系统的核心特征。美国的种族歧视事实上就是欧洲裔白人对所有其他少数种族的歧视。种族歧视既是这套种族层级系统的形成原因,也是这套种族层级系统的维持机制。
I. Forms of Racial Discrimination in the US
一、美国种族歧视的种种表现
The UN "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination" requires all state parties to take active measures to prohibit and eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms, and to guarantee the right of everyone to equality before the law, civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights without distinction as to race, color, or national or ethnic origin. The United States, a signatory to the Convention, has failed miserably in meeting these requirements. Racial discrimination in the US is found in every aspect of people's lives, particularly in law enforcement, the judiciary, the economy and society.
联合国《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》要求各缔约国采取积极行动,禁止并消除一切形式种族歧视,保证人人在法律上一律平等,不分种族、肤色或民族或人种得以平等享受公民权利、政治权利和经济、社会及文化权利。作为这一国际公约的缔约国,美国国内的种族歧视问题与此要求都相去甚远。美国种族歧视体现在现实生活的方方面面,其中特别突出地体现在执法司法领域、经济领域、社会领域。
1. Racial discrimination in law enforcement and the judiciary
(一)执法司法领域中的种族歧视
Equality before the law for everyone is a basic principle in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; it is also recognized in America's political philosophy and legal system. In reality, however, many practices of US law enforcement and the judiciary run counter to this principle, with racial discrimination worsening in certain areas and the basic human rights of racial minorities willfully violated.
法律面前人人平等是国际人权宪章的基本原则。虽然美国的政治理念和法律制度也明确承认这一原则,但现实中美国的执法司法实践却与之背道而驰,相关领域中的种族歧视现象呈变本加厉之势,少数种族的基本人权被肆意践踏。
One of the most visible of these is the frequent shooting and killing of African Americans by the police in acts of abuse of power. In 2014, 18-year-old Michael Brown, who was unarmed and barehanded, was shot by a white police officer six times and killed in Ferguson, Missouri. In 2015, 24-year-old Jamar Clark was shot and killed by police when he was already handcuffed and subdued. US federal government statistics show that young African American males are 21 times more likely to be shot and killed by police than young white males. For African American males between 15 and 19 years old, the chance of getting shot and killed by police is 31.17 per million, while the figure for white males of the same age group stands at 1.47 per million. According to the Mapping Police Violence website, in 2013 at least 301 African Americans were shot and killed by the police; the figures were 320 in 2014, 351 in 2015, 309 in 2016, 282 in 2017, and 260 in 2018. A report on The New York Times website from June 7, 2018 says that by 2017, only one police officer had been sentenced to jail in 15 cases involving the killing of African Americans that had attracted wide public attention.
最为引人关注的是警察滥用职权枪杀非洲裔事件频繁发生。2014年,美国密苏里州弗格森镇手无寸铁的18岁非洲裔青年迈克尔·布朗遭白人警察6枪射杀。2015年,明尼苏达州24岁非洲裔男子贾马尔·克拉克在戴着手铐被制服的情况下被警察开枪杀害。美国联邦统计数据分析显示,非洲裔青年男性被警察射杀的风险比白人青年男性高21倍,15岁至19岁的非洲裔男性被射杀率高达百万分之31.17,而同年龄段的白人男性被射杀率仅为百万分之1.47。据“警察暴力地图”网站统计,2013年美国至少有301名非洲裔遭警察枪杀,2014年为320人,2015年为351人,2016年为309人,2017年为282人,2018年为260人。《纽约时报》网站2018年6月7日报道,截至2017年,在舆论广泛关注的15起警察枪杀非洲裔案件中,只有一名警察被判入狱。
The double standards of US police are very much reflected in the ways that law enforcement handles different ethnic groups. On February 17, 2016 Paul Gaston, an African American who had just crashed his car and was confused about his surroundings, was shot and killed by three police officers in Cincinnati. The police said that Gaston was reaching for a gun that was later proven to be a fake. Just a day earlier, the Cincinnati police chose not to open fire at a white male who had pointed the same kind of fake gun at the police, but instead arrested him without a scratch and charged him with threatening the police. An article on the New York Daily News website commented that the different results of two similar incidents provides clear evidence of the great disparity in police treatment of African Americans and white people, and that double standards on ethnicity do exist in the US. The incidents referred to above are not isolated cases. A report on The Washington Post website from December 6, 2016 says that Edgar Maddison Welch, a 28-year-old white male, entered a restaurant in Northwest Washington with a semiautomatic rifle. Welch surrendered and walked out of the place with his back facing the police, unarmed and with his hands up. Police did not shoot him. In sharp contrast, on September 16, 2016 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Terence Crutcher, an unarmed 40-year-old African American who had his hands up and his back turned to the police, was killed by white police officers who tasered him before shooting him.
警察在面对不同种族时所采取的差异性应对方式体现了执法中的双重标准。2016年2月17日,非洲裔男子加斯顿在经历严重车祸神志恍惚的状态下被辛辛那提三名警察开枪击毙,警方的解释是他试图去取腰带上挂的枪,但事后证明那是一枝假枪。而仅在此前一天,一名白人男子甚至用这种假枪对准辛辛那提的警察,警方却没有开枪,毫发无损地将其逮捕后仅以威胁警方的罪名进行起诉。《纽约每日新闻》网站评论称,这两个相似事件的不同结果突出表明了警察对待非洲裔和白人态度完全不同,在美国的确存在着种族上的双重标准。上述事件并非孤例。《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年12月6日报道,28岁的白人韦尔奇携带半自动步枪进入华盛顿西北部一家餐厅,之后放下武器从餐厅走出,背向警察双手举起,警察没有开枪。与此形成鲜明对照的是,2016年9月16日,在俄克拉荷马州塔尔萨市,手无寸铁的非洲裔男子克拉彻在高举双手背向警察的情况下被白人警察开枪击毙,他在被杀之前还遭遇了警方的电击。
Law enforcement in the US is rife with racial discrimination. First, African Americans are much more likely to be arrested by police than any other ethnic group. Statistics from 1,581 police stations showed that African Americans were three times more likely to be arrested than people from other ethnic groups; data from at least 70 police stations showed that African Americans were ten times more likely to be arrested than people from other ethnic groups, and some of these stations had arrested 26 times more African Americans.
美国执法领域存在着根深蒂固的种族偏见。首先,非洲裔的被捕率远高于美国其他种族。全国至少有1581个警察局非洲裔被捕率高于其他种族3倍,超过70个警察局非洲裔被捕率高出其他种族10倍以上,最高的甚至达到26倍之多。
Second, the police are in favor of white people in law enforcement. Data from police departments across the country show that in areas which practice "zero tolerance" in street-level law enforcement, police mainly arrested African Americans from poor neighborhoods while turning a blind eye to similar acts in affluent white neighborhoods. Third, police use entrapment strategies against minority groups. Of all the anti-narcotic operations by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, 91 percent of the suspects detained using entrapment strategies are racial minorities. A report of the American Civil Liberties Union says that Marijuana use is roughly equal among Blacks and Whites, yet Blacks are four times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession.
其次,警察在执法中偏袒白人。全国各地警察部门的数据统计显示,在实施“零容忍”街头执法策略地区,警察逮捕的对象主要为贫困社区中的非洲裔,而对富裕白人社区的同样行为则视而不见。再次,警察还针对少数种族实施圈套执法。在缉毒行动中,美国酒精、烟草、火器和爆炸物管理局使用执法圈套锁定的犯罪嫌疑人中,91%是少数族裔。美国民权联盟的报告揭示,非洲裔和白人吸食大麻的比例相当,但是前者因携带大麻被捕的可能性是后者的4倍。
Systemic racial discrimination plagues the judiciary of the US. A study by the Public Religion Research Institute shows that 51 percent Americans think that African Americans and other racial minorities suffer from unequal treatment in the criminal justice system, and 78 percent of African Americans think they are victims of unequal treatment of the judiciary. The incarceration rate for African American males is 5.9 times higher than the rate for white males, while the rate for African American females is 2.1 times higher than the rate for white females. African Americans only constitute about 13 percent of the US population, but they account for 36 percent of federal and state prisoners.
美国司法领域中存在系统性的种族歧视。美国公共宗教研究所的调查显示,51%的美国人认为非洲裔和其他少数族裔在刑事司法体系中与白人相比受到了不平等对待,78%的非洲裔美国人认为他们在刑事司法体系中受到不平等对待。非洲裔男性的被监禁率比白人男性高5.9倍,非洲裔女性的被监禁率比白人女性高2.1倍;非洲裔仅占美国总人口的约13%,却占联邦和各州囚犯总数的36%。
The United States Sentencing Commission found that on average the terms for African American males were 19.1 percent longer than those for white males. The National Registry of Exonerations, analyzing relevant cases from 1989 to October 2016, concluded that African Americans are more likely to be wrongfully convicted of murder, sexual assault, and drug-related crimes than white persons. Of the 1,900 defendants in known exoneration cases, 47 percent are African Americans. Annette Gordon-Reed, professor of American Legal History at Harvard University, once said that African Americans are not yet full citizens. Blacks, especially young African Americans, are presumed criminals and in practice they are denied full citizenship.
美国量刑委员会研究发现,针对同样罪行,非洲裔男性犯人刑期平均比白人男性犯人高出19.1%。全国免罪记录中心对1989年至2016年10月相关案例分析后得出结论,非洲裔美国人比白人更容易被错误判定为犯有谋杀罪、性侵犯、非法毒品活动等罪行。在1900名被宣判有罪但后来被改判无罪的被告人中,47%是非洲裔美国人。美国哈佛大学法学院教授安妮特·戈登说:“非洲裔还不是完全意义上的公民。非洲裔尤其是年轻非洲裔被假定为罪犯,隔离在充分享有公民权的边界之外。”
The UN is gravely concerned about racial discrimination in law enforcement and the judiciary of the US. In its 2016 report, the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent of the UN Human Rights Council pointed out that the American government has failed to fulfill its duty of protecting the rights of African Americans, and that continued institutional and structural racism adversely affects African Americans' civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. The report criticized police violence and racial discrimination in the criminal justice system, pointing out that most of such acts go unpunished. According to the report, "Contemporary police killings and the trauma that they create are reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching. Impunity for state violence has resulted in the current human rights crisis and must be addressed as a matter of urgency." The report also found that the killing of unarmed African Americans by the police is only the tip of the iceberg in what is pervasive racial bias in the judiciary system.
联合国严重关切美国执法司法领域的种族歧视问题。联合国人权理事会非洲裔问题专家工作组2016年的调查报告指出,美国政府未能履行保护非洲裔权利的责任,制度性和结构性种族主义的持续存在,对非洲裔美国人的公民权利、政治权利和经济、社会及文化权利造成了负面的影响。报告重点批评了警察暴力以及刑事司法系统中的种族歧视行为,而这些行为大多被免予刑事处罚。“警察枪杀非洲裔及其带来的心理创伤使人联想起过去私刑处死的种族恐怖主义行为。对国家暴力行为免予刑罚已经造成了当前的人权危机,必须作为紧急事项予以处理。”报告称,警察对手无寸铁的非洲裔的杀戮,只是司法体系中普遍存在的种族偏见的冰山一角。

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