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《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书(8)(中英对照)

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VII. Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

七、无障碍环境建设与个人行动能力
China attaches importance to creating an accessible environment and supplying and adapting assistive devices and tools. It has improved relevant laws, regulations and standards, and increased support in this regard.
中国重视无障碍环境建设与辅助器具供应和适配服务,逐步完善相关法律法规和标准,不断加大支持力度。
A system of standards for creating an accessible environment has taken shape. After the "Design Standards of Urban Roads and Buildings for the Convenience of Persons with Disabilities (Trial)" came into effect in 1989, China has formulated the "Codes for Accessibility Design", the "Construction Acceptance and Maintenance Standards of the Barrier-free Facilities" and other national standards, and issued the "Accessibility Design Guide for Urban Public Transport Facilities" and the "Public Information Graphical Symbols for Use on Sign – Part 9: Symbols for Accessible Facilities". The administrative departments of civil aviation, rail, industry and information technology, education, and banking have drawn up construction codes for accessibility facilities in passenger terminals of civil airports, passenger railway stations, websites, telecommunications terminal devices, special education schools, and banks. In 2012, the State Council issued the Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment.Since the 18th CPC National Congress, legislation on creating an accessible environment has been intensified and the number of relevant laws, regulations, policies and measures has seen an obvious increase. By 2018, 475 rules and regulations on creating and managing an accessible environment had been made by authorities of provinces, prefectures (cities) and counties.
无障碍环境建设形成规范体系。自1989年《方便残疾人使用的城市道路和建筑物设计规范(试行)》颁布实施以来,中国相继制定了《无障碍设计规范》《无障碍设施施工验收及维护规范》等国家标准;发布实施《城市公共交通设施无障碍设计指南》《标志用公共信息图形符号第9部分:无障碍设施符号》等国家标准。国家民航、铁路、工业和信息化、教育、银行等主管部门分别制定实施了民用机场旅客航站区、铁路旅客车站、网站及通信终端设备、特殊教育学校、银行等行业无障碍建设标准规范。2012年,国务院颁布《无障碍环境建设条例》。中共十八大以来,无障碍环境建设立法进一步加强,法律法规和政策措施呈现明显增长的态势。截至2018年,全国省、地(市)、县共制定无障碍环境与管理的法规、规章等规范性文件475部。
Creating an accessible environment has been expanded from pilot cities to the whole country in an orderly manner. During the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), 12 cities were selected as demonstration cities for creating an accessible environment. This was expanded to 100 cities during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010). During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), 50 cities and counties were cited as models in building an accessible environment and 143 cities or counties were selected as models in innovative building of an accessible environment. In February 2015, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Civil Affairs, CDPF and some other ministries jointly issued the "Guiding Opinions on Improving Accessibility in Towns and Villages" to extend the campaign to rural areas. More efforts have been made to create more such models. By 2018, all municipalities directly under the central government, cities specifically designated in the state plan, and provincial capitals had started building an accessible environment. A thousand seven hundred and two cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 75 percent of entrances, 40 percent of service counters and 30 percent of restrooms have been constructed or upgraded for accessibility. The government has also accelerated the pace of adapting the houses of families with disabled members, and improved almost 3 million of such houses between 2016 and 2018.
城乡无障碍环境建设由点到面有序推进。“十五”期间,在12个城市开展了创建全国无障碍设施建设示范城市活动;“十一五”期间,创建活动扩展到100个城市;“十二五”期间,50个市县获选全国无障碍建设示范市县,143个市县获选全国无障碍建设创建市县。2015年2月,住房城乡建设部、民政部、中国残联等部门发布了《关于加强村镇无障碍环境建设的指导意见》,推进无障碍环境建设由城市逐步向农村发展。开展无障碍环境市县村镇创建工作。截至2018年,全国所有直辖市、计划单列市、省会城市都开展了创建全国无障碍建设城市的工作,开展无障碍建设的市、县达到1702个;全国村(社区)综合服务设施中已有75%的出入口、40%的服务柜台、30%的厕所进行了无障碍建设和改造。政府加快了残疾人家庭无障碍改造进度,2016年至2018年共有298.6万户残疾人家庭得到无障碍改造。
Information accessibility has been improved. China has drawn up national technical standards for information accessibility, and upgraded government and public service websites. The state has issued a series of national and industrial standards for persons with disabilities to use information communications equipment, to obtain online information, and to operate assistive devices, which has further completed China's system of standards in this field. China has also made efforts to enable persons with disabilities to access information on government websites. By 2018, over 500 government departments had built accessible public service platforms, and more than 30,000 websites on government affairs and public service on had removed barriers for persons with disabilities.
信息无障碍建设步伐加快。制定关于信息无障碍的国家技术标准,推动政务和公共服务网站的信息无障碍建设。加强信息无障碍标准体系建设,发布多个国家及行业标准,为残疾人便利使用信息通信设备、获取互联网信息、操纵辅助装置等提供有效标准支撑。推进中国政务网站信息无障碍建设。截至2018年,500多家政府单位完成了信息无障碍公共服务平台建设,3万多个政务和公共服务网站实现了无障碍服务。
The state is obligated to standardize and promote sign language and Braille. The "Outline of the Long and Medium-term Reform and Development Plan of Spoken and Written Languages of China (2012-2020)" and the "National Reform Plan of Spoken and Written Languages During the 13th Five-year Plan Period (2016-2020)" both include sign language and Braille in the overall plan. The "Lexicon of Common Expressions in Chinese National Sign Language" and the "Chinese Common Braille Scheme" were issued and came into effect in 2018. Important meetings such as the NPC plenary sessions have sign language interpretation in live broadcast, and China Media Group and some local television stations provide sign language interpretation for some important programs. In 2018, provincial and prefectural/city television stations ran 295 sign language programs, and radio stations broadcast 230 programs for persons with disabilities; and public libraries at provincial, prefectural/city and county levels had 1,124 Braille and audio rooms.
将手语和盲文的规范化和推广作为国家义务,《国家中长期语言文字事业改革和发展规划纲要(2012-2020年)》和《国家语言文字事业改革“十三五”发展规划》将手语和盲文纳入国家语言文字工作总体规划。2018年,《国家通用手语常用词表》和《国家通用盲文方案》正式颁布实施。全国人民代表大会等重大会议的直播加配手语播报,中央广电总台和部分地方电视台在重要节目中加配手语播报服务。截至2018年,全国省、地市级电视台共开设电视手语栏目295个,广播电台共开设残疾人专题广播节目230个,省、地(市)、县三级公共图书馆共设立盲文及盲文有声读物阅览室1124个。
China offers preferential policies or subsidies to persons with disabilities to enable them to access information. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the CDPF jointly issued the "Guiding Opinions on Supporting the Information Consumption by People with Visual, Hearing or Speech Impairments", which encourages telecommunications service providers to offer preferential plans to these specific groups, and guides large internet companies to provide convenience for these people in such domains as skills training, operations management, and information sharing, to facilitate their participation in internet-related businesses. Internet companies also make efforts to improve their online shopping experience, to share information accessibility technologies, and to give vocational skill training.
对残疾人信息消费给予优惠或补贴。中国残联、工业和信息化部发布《关于支持视力、听力、言语残疾人信息消费的指导意见》,鼓励基础电信企业推出面向特定人群的资费优惠,引导大型互联网企业为从事互联网行业的视力、听力、言语残疾人在技能培训、运营管理、信息共享等方面提供便利。互联网企业也在提升残疾人网购体验、开放信息无障碍技术、开展职业技能培训等方面提供了一系列服务。
Creating an accessible environment has been promoted in key areas. The 2035 plan for a barrier-free public transport system has been launched. The Ministry of Transport adds accessibility requirements in the design standards of transport facilities such as passenger terminals, expressway service areas, ferry terminals, subway stations, city buses and subway trains. Various localities use more accessible passenger vehicles like low-floor buses and wheelchair accessible taxies, and require reserved seats for the elderly, infirm, sick, and disabled in public transport vehicles. Buses are equipped with telescreens and next-stop announcement systems in most cities, and blind guidance systems in some cities. All public transport facilities are accessible for persons with disabilities in many provinces. The rail administration reserves seats for them on more than 3,400 CRH trains, and permits visually impaired people to board with guide dogs. Financial institutions have upgraded wheelchair ramps and tactile paving,installed number calling and display systems, and set up accessible restrooms and disabled parking spaces. Post offices provide door-to-door services for persons with severe disabilities. Delivery companies send text messages to clients with hearing impairments, and deliver publications in Braille for free. The facilities and services for persons with disabilities to access the legal services have been improved. Accessibility has been upgraded in the reception rooms and judicial tribunals of courts to enable them to enjoy equal legal rights. The courts also promote information accessibility, and allow assistants to those with disabilities to appear in court when necessary.
重点领域无障碍建设积极推进。启动到2035年交通运输无障碍出行服务体系建设,交通运输部在客运枢纽、高速公路服务区、客运码头、地铁站等交通基础设施以及城市公共汽车电车、地铁等交通工具的设计使用标准中增加无障碍要求。各地积极推广应用无障碍化客运车辆,在公共交通工具上设置“老弱病残”专座,使用低地板公交车和无障碍出租汽车。大部分城市公交车都配备车载屏幕和语音报站系统,部分城市公交车安装了车载导盲系统。多个省份客运设施无障碍建设率达到100%。铁路部门为3400余辆动车组列车设置了残疾人专座,允许盲人携带导盲犬乘坐火车。银行业金融机构改造轮椅坡道和盲道,配置语音叫号系统、叫号显示屏等设备,设立无障碍卫生间和无障碍停车位。邮政部门为重度残疾人提供上门服务,快递行业为聋人客户提供短信服务,盲人读物免费寄送。完善诉讼无障碍设施及服务。大力推进法院接待场所、审判场所的无障碍设施建设,方便残疾人参加诉讼。积极推进信息交流无障碍环境建设,根据案件情况,允许相关辅助、陪护人员陪同残疾当事人出庭。
Services for supplying and adapting assistive appliances are guaranteed by national policies. In 2016, the State Council formulated "Directives on Accelerating the Development of the Industry of Rehabilitation Assistive Appliances", and the Ministry of Finance, State Taxation Administration and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly issued the "Notice on the Exemption of Corporate Income Tax from the Enterprises Manufacturing and Assembling the Special Products for Persons with Disabilities" to reduce the cost of such products. Local governments have formulated subsidy measures for assistive appliances and adaption services. In 2018, 3.19 million persons with disabilities benefited from adaption services of such assistive devices as white canes, visual aids and artificial limbs. Programs organized by governments at various levels such as Cheung Kong New Milestone Plan (for artificial limbs) and lottery-subsidized assistive tools have benefited 15 million people since 1996.
辅助器具供应和适配服务获得政策支持。2016年,国务院制定《关于加快发展康复辅助器具产业的若干意见》,对推进辅助器具产业快速发展作出部署。财政部、税务总局、民政部联合发布《关于生产和装配伤残人员专门用品企业免征企业所得税的通知》,免征上述企业的企业所得税,降低伤残人员专门用品的生产成本。各地相继制定辅助器具补贴办法,对购买辅助器具和提供适配服务给予补贴。2018年,有319.1万残疾人获得盲杖、助视器、假肢等各类辅具适配服务。自1996年以来,各级政府组织实施“长江新里程计划”假肢服务、彩票公益金辅助器具服务等重点项目,累计为1500万人次提供了服务。
The personal mobility of persons with disabilities has been improved. The Ministry of Public Security has relaxed the restrictions preventing persons with disabilities from applying for a driving license, and 279,000 people with physical or hearing disabilities have gained licenses. "Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities" require transport providers, airports and airport ground service agents to provide sufficient free mobility assistive facilities to enable eligible disabled persons to embark and disembark. All trains should reserve a certain quota of tickets for persons with disabilities. Visually impaired people can ride city buses for free. China has drawn up national standards for guide dogs. The government has also developed online and telephone taxi reservation services for those with disabilities.
残疾人个人行动能力得到提升。公安部不断放宽残疾人申领驾驶证条件,已有27.9万肢体、听力等残障人员申领驾驶证。《残疾人航空运输管理办法》要求承运人、机场和机场地面服务代理人为具备乘机条件的残疾人免费提供登机、离机所需要的移动辅助设备。每列火车预留残疾人旅客专用票额。盲人可以免费乘坐市内公交。制定《导盲犬》国家标准。积极发展网络、电话预约出租汽车服务,方便残疾人群体乘车出行。

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transport [træns'pɔ:t]

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n. 运输、运输工具;(常用复数)强烈的情绪(狂喜或狂怒

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n. 执照,许可证,特许
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mobility [məu'biliti]

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